Writing Effective Combat Scenes

My triumphant return commences today. I’m sorry I’ve been gone so long, but between my husband’s health and my health we had the snot kicked out of us the last week. The good news is my husband is recovering, and I’m just waiting for the weather to break so I can return to my normal activities.

A friend recently messaged me about writing a combat scene. She had three good guys and three bad guys all involved in a melee and was struggling with figuring out how to make it make sense. Writing a large combat scene is challenging, and writers often stumble with combat in general, so I thought it prudent to address the issue.

Let’s start with the basics of writing combat, shall we? This is a cross-genre reality, by the way. It doesn’t matter if your characters are using swords, fists, firearms, or futuristic laser weapons, these will apply.

1) Do not give a blow-by-blow.

I don’t need to know every single movement to understand what’s going on. Unless there’s a theatrical reason to show a specific aspect of a motion, don’t detail it. I’ll show you what I mean:

Jon lifted his hand, pulling it to his side and setting his weight before driving it into Paul’s face, stopping before he over-straightened his elbow so he didn’t hurt the joint.

Jon punched Paul in the face.

The difference between the two should be apparent. The first would work in, perhaps, a training scenario where the character is really analyzing every movement he’s making to study it. In that moment, the reader is focused on all those little details along with Jon. They’re part of the flow of narrative. In a real combat situation, however, we don’t stop to think about all those things. We just punch our enemy in the face. You can specify the location of the hit (the nose, the mouth, the gut, whatever) if it’s important, but don’t over-complicate each action. If you do it will lead to a thirty-second fight going on for fifteen pages, and the readers will have fallen asleep by then.

As a martial artist, I can tell you it’s tempting to give a full, rich description of every blow, but as a reader I know they won’t care about that unless you’re reaching a very specific segment of the population who enjoys that kind of thing. If those folks are your demographic then all the more power to you. In the real world (unlike the world of theatrical combat and cinema), fights are usually over in about thirty seconds for close quarters combat (knife, sword, open hand). And thirty seconds is actually a pretty long fight. Firearms confrontations can last longer with the addition of cover and movement, but at that point the emphasis is less on the shooting than it is on the hunting and tactics.

2) Focus on one set of combatants at a time.

Imagine you’re watching a wide-angle shot of field combat with no one as the “main character”. You just sit up in the clouds, watching a group skirmish. It’s chaotic, it’s hard to follow, and unless you’ve got the camera focused on a specific set of combatants you aren’t going to see a whole lot other than the general gist of the conflict. Much like with dialogue, if you have too many characters acting at once it becomes chaotic fast. If you have three good guys fighting three bad guys, and two sets of fighters are not the driving factors of the story—have them as background. You can comment that they are, in fact, fighting. You can even say when one of them wins or loses if it’s important. However, keep the camera on the main character(s). Whichever fight is the most important should be what’s on screen.

When you’re in a full melee, you can narrate things happening around the main character—and you should—but don’t lose your focus. To take an example from cinema, the photo below illustrates what I’m getting at. The medium is different, of course, but we should be doing the literary equivalent of this:



The Hobbit: Battle of Five Armies,Copyright by Warner Bros. Entertainment


As you can see from this still shot of “The Hobbit: Battle of Five Armies”, Bard (the man without the helmet whose face we see) is in the middle of a melee with a whole host of terrible, faceless orcs all dressed in almost the same armor. Visually, they did this to make sure he (the main character of this shot) stands out. You can have action happening all around the main character and their conflict, but their personal struggle should take center stage. We can see that there is other combat happening around and behind him, but he is the one our eyes are drawn to.

3) Do at least a cursory study of whatever art you’re portraying.

Yes, watching YouTube videos at 3am counts as cursory study. I cannot tell you how irksome it is to read a book where it is clear the author has never even held (or seen outside of cinematic use) the weapon their character is using. People forget to count the number of bullets their character’s gun carries until a crucial moment where they pull the trigger and click ! (As a side note, semi-automatics don’t do that!) While I by no means expect anyone to study and grow proficient in an art before writing about it, I recommend at least watching enough videos or reading enough information that you know these few things. If you have weapon-specific questions regarding firearms, swords, or open hand please feel free to drop me a line through a comment or send me an email. I’ll be happy to talk to you about it until you don’t want to hear about it anymore!

These quick studies are surprisingly important. Say I’m writing a medieval story, and I have no idea how crossbows work (as most people don’t), I might not realize that the crossbow heralded the end of the plate mail period because it rendered plate mail useless. Crossbows (which required far less training than a long bow) could kill a man wearing full plate armor from a long distance away. They were hated weapons because they revolutionized the playing field and gave an unwashed peasant the same killing power (or more) than a Lord. If you have a world where crossbow bolts are bouncing off plate mail, you’ll give every historian who knows the reality of that tidbit a twitch. I have similar reactions to unrealistic portrayal of most combat. It’s not personal, but when you know what it’s supposed to be, you have to try very, very hard to suspend your disbelief when someone is using it improperly.

4) Make sure you address the characters’ emotions during combat.

While, yes, your characters are swinging swords or firing pistols or what have you, those aren’t the only things happening in a fight. Their emotions are probably all over the place (unless they’re trained killers—then note that!) and their adrenaline is pumping. Chances are their hands might be shaking with the adrenaline rush, or they’ve got tunnel vision. You don’t need to spend a great deal of time on these things, but tossing them in here and there makes sense. It evokes feelings. In cinema we can see a character’s hands shake, their facial expressions, hear the tremor in their voice, but in literature we need to show those things to the reader. It’s an important part of a fight, so don’t forget it!

5) Keep your setting straight.

Wasn’t that table on the other side of the room? Wait, I don’t remember there being stairs here! Writers sometimes jumble up settings during a fight for the purpose of drama. Make sure you keep them consistent and mention important set pieces before they come into play. If your character is going to be thrown through a plate glass window make sure the reader knows there is one before the big moment because otherwise it will, to them, be a magically-appearing set piece, and those are a huge faux-pas.

What one of my editors at Insomnia Publishing, Joshua Quivey, suggests to authors is that they do a quick sketch of the environment. You can do this in any program resembling MS Paint or even on graph paper if you aren’t artistically inclined. For us nerds out t here, we’ll recognize it like a D&D map of the dungeon with the author knowing what goblins and kobolds lie around the next corner and the readers (adventurers!) creep along, hoping their torches stay lit and that the chest in the corner isn’t a mimic.


Hey, everyone. Sorry to break my usual posting schedule. My husband is in the hospital with an infection. He’s going to be fine, so there’s no cause for worry, but I’ve been kind of busy with that this week. I could use your thoughts, prayers, and well wishes for him, though.

I hope to return to your scheduled insanity on Monday.

Timelines In Writing

So you’re writing a novel where time plays an important part. Maybe your characters only have a few hours or days to handle something. Or maybe you’re jumping back and forth between future and past to try and tell a story in two places at once. Sometimes this means telling parts of a story in flashbacks or flash-forwards (which is a thing now, shush). It works in television—why can’t it work in writing?

The problem with flashbacks in storytelling in general is it removes the reader from the action of now. If you are telling two stories that are intertwined, that’s one thing (as in The Vanishing of Katherine Sullivan by Christina Weaver), but if you are just taking the reader back to a certain point in the life and times of the characters this device must be used carefully because it can often read as a deus ex machina or, even worse, just be an expositionary dump. Neither of those things are your friend, so you need to handle the flow of information carefully.

On the other hand, if you aren’t paying much attention to your timelines you can also make silly errors like starting a scene in the morning and by the end of the fifteen-minute conversation it’s suddenly 3am. I am guilty of having done that more than once because the timeline sort of slips away in my head, and since it’s not important to the plot, I lose track. That kind of thing happens, so make sure when you’re self-editing you look for that kind of thing.

Another type of time faux pas has to do with travel. Is your character going from one place to another? How long should that realistically take? If you’re traveling by horseback going at a comfortable pace for the horse, they can make about 40 miles a day in decent terrain. Much less in harsh terrain. It also depends on the health of the horse, the weather… I could get really technical and boring, but I won’t. However, you do see my point. While most readers (I’m using a lot of italics today) won’t pick up on small things like having a horseback ride take a day or two more or less than it realistically should, make sure you do take into account that kind of information when writing. Particularly, as I said earlier, if time is an important factor in your book.

I currently have a novel in developmental editing that tells a large chunk of a story and then flashes back for a long time before flashing forward again. The problem is, the author wants to avoid giving away the story outside of the flashbacks (for good reason), so they have characters discover information that isn’t shared with the reader until this large flashback sequence happens. This kind of technique and used in this way is jarring to the reader because it drags them out of a story they’re well-established in (the flashback sequence happens halfway through the novel) and thrusts them into another story with new characters that the reader has heard of by name but doesn’t really know. It’s a little disorienting and feels out of place.

My recommendation to this author is to move some of these flashback chapters out of this large section and insert them earlier into the book, providing a dual timeline for the story and thus giving the reader valuable information earlier on and not destroying the reader’s feeling of intimacy with the main character. The key here is to not have time flowing normally and then ratchet it back before hurling it forward again. It becomes confusing.

I’m sorry if this blog entry isn’t the best ever; it’s written while half-awake. I promise, Wednesday’s will be more interesting, but this particular thing was in my head while working.

Farm Life Friday

So this week on my family farm, we had some fun experiences trying to herd sheep (which I am slowly learning is an art that requires a corn bucket, a rope, and lots of patience). Our farm is summering some sheep for a friend of ours. The sheep are helping us eat down our fields and make them look less like a catastrophe and, in turn, she isn’t having to feed them as much hay, so it cuts way down on her feed costs. Everyone wins.

Now, for anyone who has not experienced sheep, I want to say up front that they are on the whole the stupidest animals I have ever encountered. Not on an individual basis but as a species. They’re sweet, cuddly, loving, and wonderful, but they are exceptionally stupid. At the start of the week we had four adult ewes (female sheep) and one lamb who came with the mother. Two of the ewes had been here before last year. They knew me, and they’re reasonably affectionate when they realize from whose hands they get delicious, delicious corn. It took them a few days to settle in, but they calmed right down. The third is a little spooky, but not too bad. The last one, though, whose name I have learned is “Moonstone” is as woolheaded as they come. She was so nervous of me she wouldn’t let me feed her, the silly billy.

As a result, this one nervous sheep kept the rest of the herd in high gear, making them so difficult to manage I eventually had to call my friend and have her take the troublemaker home. The problem was she was born during a time when the family didn’t have resources to socialize her like they did the others, and since sheep are followers, if one is spooked, the whole herd goes haywire. That makes four sheep (five if you count the baby) and three goats a headache to try and move from one pen to another for sure. Particularly if you have one you can’t catch because she’s so nervous! I felt bad for her, but after two weeks of trying to make friends unsuccessfully she had to go home.

She went home yesterday and we replaced her spot at the feed trough with a third female who has been here in the past who had just given birth two weeks ago. So we now have two adorable, fluffy lambs and four mothers (and our three dairy goats). Today I decided to try luring them into the pen just by shaking the grain bucket. It worked on most of them, but one of the mama sheep (the one who has been here for awhile) decided she was having no part of staying in the pen while I went to fetch the silly ones who didn’t realize that the grain bucket means dinnertime. Or breakfast, in their case.

Thus started my ordeal.

Now, this mama sheep had figured out, previously, how to escape the pen I have set up for them. Too smart for her own good, I say, but here we are. Now, I had one of the outliers on a lead after luring her over to me with said delicious, delicious corn. I opened the gate to put her in, and mama sheep decided she wanted out. Okay. Fine. Be that way. I stepped into her way and kept a firm hold on the other lead while trying to push mama inside one-handed. Not my finest moment, I’ll admit, because mama didn’t listen. Instead, she charged through the three-inch gap between my knees.

Now, this mama sheep is not a small sheep. She is hip-height on me, and I am 5’9. She’s strong, and she’s willful (but mostly sweet-natured). When she decided to charge through the gap there was nothing I could do about it. She’s strong, and I was off balance, so she sent me pitching forward onto her back. What fun!

Being the stubborn woman I am, I kept hold of the lead on that other sheep, who spooked a little at the commotion, wrapped my free arm around mama sheep’s belly, and ended up riding her about twenty feet down the hill. At this point, with the gate open, the rest of the sheep and goats wandered out while I rolled off mama sheep, plopped down in the grass, and reconsidered the state of my life.

I did, eventually, get the sheep into various enclosures, but this has been my day. Did I mention I hadn’t even had my tea yet? Somebody save me from myself.

The Spark of Life: Character Development

I recently had a friend contact me about how to develop characters. He was worried all his characters are too much like him, and what he does to divorce them from him turns them into a farce of themselves. This is something writers struggle with, I’m sure, and character development and growth is tough. It’s not something that comes naturally to most people, and creating “real” characters is a challenge.

So how do you do it? How do you breathe in that spark of life? The first part of that is to make your characters real people. I don’t mean that in a creepy way, but give them hopes, dreams, flaws. These flaws should be real to them—just like ours are to us. My main character in my fantasy series, Archimedes, is stubborn to a fault. He’s pushy and overbearing sometimes when he wants to get his way. At the start of the books, he’s also a bit of a coward and is running away from his obligations rather than fulfilling them. He’s also loyal, honest, and kind. He really wants to do the right thing, but he’s having trouble making it happen.

Regardless of whether your characters are in an alien world or a mundane one, fantasy or reality, they need to be relatable. They will contain archetypes that humanity posses. There are many theories of archetypes out there floating around in the study of psychology (which I recommend researching, by the way—it’s going to help you create more believable characters), but I tend to lean toward using the Jungian archetypes when writing if I need to categorize my characters. You can start with these archetypes because they are based on real people. These are common types of people throughout the world and throughout history. You aren’t limited to them, but they should help you as a place to start.

The second key is to give your characters places to grow. Archimedes, through the novel, faces some of his fears and stands up for what’s right, becoming stronger and driving away his cowardice and fear. He transforms over the course of the novel because of what he experiences. As with real people, we encounter things in life that change us. A loved one’s death, a lover who sees things in us we don’t, war, poverty, fear… all kinds of things change us as we go through life both good and bad. Your novel will, naturally, have these experiences in it for your character. Let them grow and change organically as they faces these trials.

I know many people say their characters take on a life of their own and so on, but that’s only partially true. While, yes, our characters do sometimes reveal themselves in unexpected ways the person ultimately controlling your novel and your characters is you. I do not ascribe to the theory that characters do their own thing because, frankly, they are nothing more than imaginary creations of the writer. While our imaginations might run away with us, our characters are entirely of our own design. To think otherwise is, frankly, verging on mental illness.

As far as divesting our characters from ourselves goes, that’s harder. Each character we create is a mirror for some aspect of ourselves, however small. We wouldn’t have invented them otherwise. These characters collectively are reflect slivers of our souls. If your characters aren’t doing that, and they’re coming out flat, that may be why. I feel for and with my characters as I write. When they suffer pain, so do I. When they feel triumph, I feel that rush. That flow of emotion is something readers pick up on, also. Assuming your writing is good, that is.

That emotion, and that reflection of the soul, is what creates the spark of life. I identify with Archimedes’ struggles, to some extent. While I don’t face the same things or react the same way, he show some of the things that I want to be at my best. He also faces some of the fears I have at my worst. Other characters in my world are similar. That includes the villains. Of course, that doesn’t mean that I am secretly an evil person, it does mean that there is a piece of humanity in that character. A fragment of a soul that the reader should, hopefully feel.

Stories That Matter

I’m broaching a controversial and sticky subject in this blog, and I want you to stick with me. This post isn’t going to be political because my opinions aren’t something I want to breach on this blog. However, it will touch the subject, and I know this is a difficult subject for us to discuss in the world.

So why am I writing about this? Well, every few weeks I see someone posting a question about whether or not writers (as a whole) have a responsibility to write about “x” or “y” socio-political subject. These discussions are valid and include a lot of useful and important conversation regarding said subjects. Like I said, the specifics aren’t something I’m here to blog about. But the concept of social responsibility of writers comes up over and over again, and it’s something I think is important to address.

What kind of responsibility do writers have? Well, we all know that writers can change the world. They can bring to light tough issues that are under-represented or change perspectives on other ones. Writers have power, and it’s only right we should consider how we use that power to inform the world of our moral views. But should we be required to do so? I think the resounding answer on that is: no.

If writing about a specific subject, or incorporating specific elements into your story is in your heart then go forward with it and change the world. Fight for your beliefs. Sway hearts. Use the power of your word to speak on issues that are important to you, and make your voice heard. But if you “just want to tell a story”, that’s okay, too. I put that in quotes because there’s no such thing as “just telling a story” to some extent.

Good stories in every genre connect to parts of us and parts of the human condition. I know I sound like a snooty literary teacher, but those connections are what make them so powerful and why we crave them. Romance, adventure, coming of age, fear, excitement, loss… all of these themes can (and many are) present in many different works and genres of writing. My novels so far have largely displayed the theme of coming to terms with something in yourself that you have previously avoided. I make characters go through hell to face their inner demons. It’s an inner journey that I have taken, myself, so it’s natural that would be reflected in my writing.

All that said, I don’t think writers should be “required” or “forced” to incorporate any particular elements in their work. I encourage people to use the power of their words to reach out to others, but the best way to encourage change is to be the change you want to see. If you want to see more (or less) of a certain story element in writing then reflect that in your writing. You can encourage people to confront certain issues and discuss them in their work. Those conversations, as I said previously, can be valuable. But required? That’s going into bad places.

Outside of the fact that it treads on our individual artistic expression, forcing or shaming someone into including certain story elements means those story elements will not be represented in the strongest or best way possible. “A man convinced against his will is of the same opinion still,” as the old adage goes. They might provide lip service to whatever it is they’re being pressured into, but it won’t spring from a place of authenticity. Without authenticity, writing means nothing. It’s just words on paper.

Authenticity is a vital part of writing. I don’t mean the accuracy that comes with research. I mean the author’s emotional investment. If you aren’t feeling what you’re writing (overall, not that moment where you’re writing because you have to power through the mid-manuscript blues) then it’s not worth writing. It’s not worth publishing. It’s not worth reading. Requiring people to do things without authenticity will result in worthless work that is more of an insult and liability than it is an asset.

In the end, yes—writers are responsible for telling the world stories that matter. Stories that move people. Stories that reach them. However, every writer needs to write for themselves. They need to speak on what makes them lie awake at night. Those are the stories that will shake the world.

Why Readers Stop Reading a Book.

This is a fantastic breakdown–I recommend everyone take a look at this. If people aren’t reading your book, you might be making one of these mistakes!

Lit World Interviews

Recently, we here at LitWorldInterviews.com conducted a survey, “Why do you put a book down?” and through the assistance of the writing community we had a very nice response. Now it’s time to share what we found.

First, I want to say why the survey was conducted. We wanted to help writers by giving them the information they most need. If a reader takes the time to check out your book and don’t like it, they are unlikely to give you a second chance with your next work. First impressions mean a lot.

86.30% of those responding were Female, thus leaving the remaining 13.70% Male. Considering the majority of those reading novels are Female, although not quite this extreme, I’m comfortable with sharing what we found.

There were 34 sub-categories as a result of the survey. Those results were then placed into 5 main categories: Writing, Editing, Proofreading, Taste, and…

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